Journal of Online and Distance Learning https://carijournals.org/journals/index.php/JODL Journal of Online and Distance Learning is an esteemed and a high profile journal accredited for its vital and in-depth information published by CARI. The journal aims to impart and advance knowledge across borders in the most convenient and cost-effective way possible. The journal ideally seeks to bridge the gap between scholars and writers worldwide by making the global world a global village to everyone. On a distance learning course, often the only interaction with a tutor is when assignments are submitted for marking; it’s also rare to interact with fellow students. Thus this journal capitalizes on this aspect by giving students and tutors the freedom to go about their daily businesses while at the same time gaining depths of knowledge at the comfort of their zone. en-US journals@carijournals.org (Journal Admin) support@carijournals.org (Journal Support) Tue, 03 Aug 2021 10:01:47 +0300 OJS 3.2.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 THE ADVANTAGE OF ADOPTION OF OPEN DISTANCE AND E-LEARNING TO INCREASE ACCESS TO FEMALE HIGHER EDUCATION https://carijournals.org/journals/index.php/JODL/article/view/634 <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: A highly educated woman is viewed as rude, uncooperative and unable to manage house work. These perceptions are said to discourage some female and their parents from pursuing higher education in marginal areas. The general objective of the study was to establish advantage of adoption of Open Distance and e-Learning to increase access to female in higher education.</p> <p><strong><em>Methodology</em></strong>: The paper used a desk study review methodology where relevant empirical literature was reviewed to identify main themes and to extract knowledge gaps.</p> <p><strong><em>Findings</em></strong><em>: </em>The study recommends that is a need for pursuing policies and programs to develop Information and Communication Technology as well as Open and Distance Education to wide access to quality educational opportunities. There is general recognition of the potential for Open Distance and e-Learning to meet the needs of some groups of women. This study proposes the development of Information and Communication Technology and Open Distance and e-Learning policies to exploit the advantages of the mass media while at the same time putting in place the development of supportive electronic networks. Also, a strong national framework is required to support a national quality assurance network in order to guide student assessment systems at all levels of Open Distance and e-Learning.</p> <p><strong><em>Recommendations:</em></strong> The study recommends that is a need for pursuing policies and programmes to develop Information and Communication Technology as well as Open and Distance Education to wide access to quality educational opportunities. There is general recognition of the potential for Open Distance and e-Learning to meet the needs of some groups of women. This study proposes the development of Information and Communication Technology and Open Distance and e-Learning policies to exploit the advantages of the mass media while at the same time putting in place the development of supportive electronic networks. Also, a strong national framework is required to support a national quality assurance network in order to guide student assessment systems at all levels of Open Distance and e-Learning</p> Alfred Mwangi Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Online and Distance Learning https://carijournals.org/journals/index.php/JODL/article/view/634 Tue, 03 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0300 EVALUATION OF PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT OF DISTANCE EDUCATION. ACRITICAL LITERATURE REVIEW https://carijournals.org/journals/index.php/JODL/article/view/635 <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: The rapid technological changes in education today have become paramount towards meeting our educational demands for the 21st century. The emerging trend in the use of Information Communication Technology has helped in bringing down the traditional barriers of access to higher education leading to access of quality education and training. This has provided learners with opportunities for lifelong learning and meaningful participation in the world of work and society as productive citizens through distance learning. The general objective of the study was to conduct an evaluation of planning and management of distance education.</p> <p><strong><em>Methodology</em></strong>: The paper used a desk study review methodology where relevant empirical literature was reviewed to identify main themes and to extract knowledge gaps.</p> <p><strong><em>Findings</em></strong><em>: </em>From the study findings, it is concluded that little difference was found in the community found in the web-based course in comparison with their traditional courses. With the special characteristics associated with distance education, special measures should be taken to see that communities are established. Choosing exercises or activities that are collaborative will increase the potential for developing a community of learners. In addition, frequent use of online discussion or bulletin boards will also assist with this endeavor. Professional development on how to build a community for traditional and web-based courses is needed.</p> <p><strong><em>Recommendations:</em></strong> The study recommends that is a need for assessment of whether or not faculty are adequately prepared to teach at a distance, especially in light of the fact that faculty tend to teach in the same manner in which they were taught, is definitely warranted. A check list that would help identify the preparedness of the faculty member before they are responsible for distance student learning would help the students and program. Instructor training should be required before faculty are considered qualified to teach distance courses which necessitates the discovery of quality training programs. Support staff that is needed to assist faculty members when making the transition from a face-to-face to a virtual environment should be identified</p> Cassan Kimani Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Online and Distance Learning https://carijournals.org/journals/index.php/JODL/article/view/635 Tue, 03 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0300 INFLUENCE OF INSTITUTIONAL RELATED ON CHOICE OF TECHNOLOGY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FOR DISTANCE EDUCATION https://carijournals.org/journals/index.php/JODL/article/view/636 <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: no one technology can support all types of teaching and learning at a distance – the most effective approach is to combine a range of technologies. Using multiple technologies ensure that all learning styles are catered for and that significant opportunities for interaction between the learner and the tutor are provided. The general objective of the study was to institutional related on choice of technology for the development of instructional materials for distance education.</p> <p><strong><em>Methodology</em></strong>: The paper used a desk study review methodology where relevant empirical literature was reviewed to identify main themes and to extract knowledge gaps.</p> <p><strong><em>Findings</em></strong><em>: </em>From the study findings, it is concluded that most of learner support services offered to distant learners were not good enough to support the learners effectively. Secondly, the students and the administrators were of the view that there were learner support services that were very vital to distant learners. Thirdly, the students and the administrators were of the general view and in agreement that the learner support services offered were necessary. However, since the students indicated that majority of the services on offer were poor across the institutions under the study, there is need to improve and make them better. Learning through experience influences the creation of new values which become attitudes that have a strong impact on teacher's behavior towards e-learning technology.</p> <p><strong><em>Recommendations:</em></strong> The study recommends that is a need availability of ICT infrastructure, the absence of inadequacy of which will totally hamper the idea of e-learning adoption in universities. There should be provision of computers and high bandwidth to enable the easy flow of classes online. If the high ICT infrastructure for e-learning is unavailable, the sequential use of predecessor distance learning technologies from correspondence courses to radio, TV, CD-ROM, Internet and World Wide Web is recommended. Such a sequential use of predecessor distance learning technologies is poised to leverage the experience into a significant use of learning</p> Dr.James Kimani Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Online and Distance Learning https://carijournals.org/journals/index.php/JODL/article/view/636 Tue, 03 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0300 INFLUENCE OF MOBILE PHONE ON ENHANCING LEARNER SUPPORT SERVICES FOR DISTANCE EDUCATION PROGRAMMES https://carijournals.org/journals/index.php/JODL/article/view/637 <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: Mobile technologies provide an affordable and easily accessible technology that lecturers can use effectively to assist students with their studies. The general objective of the study was to evaluate influence of mobile phone on&nbsp;&nbsp; enhancing learner support services for distance education programmes.</p> <p><strong><em>Methodology</em></strong>: The paper used a desk study review methodology where relevant empirical literature was reviewed to identify main themes and to extract knowledge gaps.</p> <p><strong><em>Findings</em></strong><em>: </em>From the study findings,it was concluded &nbsp;that most students have a smartphone and have installed applications that enable them to access the internet, but they ended up using their phones for social network and not learning purposes. Despite the fact that the phones are able to check and send emails, majority of those interviewed preferred using the computer over the phone. Most students and lecturers did not communicate over the phone in case of clarity on a certain subject even the sending of results, missing marks and such. Most administrators sent SMS regarding important dates and venues to DE students but rarely and did not send results through SMS, do not send SMS on tutorial schedules and never sent SMS giving reminders about deadlines for submitting assignments to DE students</p> <p><strong><em>Recommendations:</em></strong> The study recommended that there was a need for the universities and colleges not utilizing mobile phones should develop common email center that does not compromise privacy of the users. The service should be of high speed and able to support large data exchange. The universities should establish common social media network by registering on leading social network such as facebook or google+. The common social platform center should be administratively controlled to monitor the exchange of information for purposes of learning and support. The knowledge and scientific understanding accruing from this study should be considered by policy makers when laying down guidelines for learner support systems in distance education programmes</p> Samuel Boro Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Online and Distance Learning https://carijournals.org/journals/index.php/JODL/article/view/637 Tue, 03 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0300 INFLUENCE OF TECHNOLOGY TYPE ON DEVELOPMENT OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FOR DISTANCE EDUCATION https://carijournals.org/journals/index.php/JODL/article/view/638 <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: no one technology can support all types of teaching and learning at a distance – the most effective approach is to combine a range of technologies. Using multiple technologies ensure that all learning styles are catered for and that significant opportunities for interaction between the learner and the tutor are provided. The general objective of the study was to evaluate influence of technology type on development of instructional materials for distance education.</p> <p><strong><em>Methodology</em></strong>: The paper used a desk study review methodology where relevant empirical literature was reviewed to identify main themes and to extract knowledge gaps.</p> <p><strong><em>Findings</em></strong><em>: </em>From the study findings, it is concluded that learning through experience influences the creation of new values which become attitudes that have a strong impact on teacher's behavior towards e-learning technology. Therefore, the attitude and values are singled out as a separate category as well, linking together certain factors that influence them. Because of the manner of academic teaching process, the most commonly used is blended learning model where a course instructor chooses the e-learning technology based on certain elements. The practice has shown that creating a blended learning environment is not easy and that course instructors have problems in many stages of designing the virtual learning environment, from the analysis of the course requirements, analysis of the student requirements, application of instructional design model, e-learning technology use, not understanding the concept of the quality of e-learning process and many other factors..</p> <p><strong><em>Recommendations:</em></strong> The study recommends that is a need for more courses should be integrated in distance learning so as to cover all the courses offered to students. There is also need for students to enroll in practical classes for computer training. This will enable the less net savvy students to brace up so as to avoid being left behind by others. There is no doubt that a lot of pressures are facing our students when it comes to distance learning technology adoption, especially distance barrier. There is therefore, need for e-learning to be fully put in place to enable the group of students that their homes are far away from the school to participate in classes even when they are not able to make it to school. Finally, there should be availability of ICT infrastructure, the absence or inadequacy of which will totally hamper the idea of e-learning adoption in universities. There should be provision of computers and high bandwidth to enable the easy flow of classes online</p> Hannah Njoki Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Online and Distance Learning https://carijournals.org/journals/index.php/JODL/article/view/638 Tue, 03 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0300