Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


Dr Aigbe Gregory Ohihoin


Background: Patients with HIV AIDS are beginning to live longer and healthier lives due to the use of ARV therapy. The effect of long term usage of these agents on the reproductive potential of human females has not been well studied. The study of the estrus cycle in rats will give information on the possible effect of ARV's on the reproductive potential of humans.

Aims: To elucidate the effects of the first-line ARV's, Efavirenz, Tenofovir and Lamivudine administered in a combined fashion, on the oestrous cycle of adult female Wistar rats.

Material and Methods: Twenty-five female Wistar rats with a mean weight of 158.76g were used. A total of five groups of rats were involved in the study. Five rats were apportioned to each study group. All three ARV's were administered orally in a combined fashion to a particular group of Female Wistar rats and also administered individually to other groups while the control group received water. The estrous cycles of various groups of rats were monitored via microscopic analysis of their vaginal smears

Results: The control group had a consistently regular cycle, while the cycles of the rats in the combination therapy group and the rats that received efavirenz alone, became elongated relative to the control group. There was a 48-hour enlongated proestrous phase some of the rats.

Conclusions: First-line ARV's - Tenofovir, Efavirenz, and Lamivudine- disrupt the estrous cycle of adult rats. Further investigation of the long term usage of these drugs on the menstrual cycle of human females is therefore necessary

This Abstract was viewed 125 times | PDF Article downloaded 16 times


antiretroviral, disrupt, cycle

Full Text:



Johnson, L., Mossong, J., Dorrington, R., Schomaker, M., Hoffmann, C., Keiser, O., Fox, M., Wood, R., Prozesky, H., Giddy, J., Garone, D., Cornell, M., Egger, M., Boulle, A. (2013). Life expectancies of South African adults starting antiretroviral treatment: collaborative analysis of cohort studies. PLoS Med.;10:e1001418

Nakagawa, F., May, M., Phillips, A. (2013). Life expectancy living with HIV: recent estimates and future implications. Curr Opin Infect Dis.26:17–25


Smita Kolhe, Dr. Praveen Chaudhari, Dhananjay et al (2013) “Dissolution Enhancement of Poorly Water Soluble Efavirenz by Hot Melt Extrusion Technique” Int. J. Drug Dev. & Res., , 5(2): 368-381. doi: doi

Andrews, WW, Ojeda, SRA. (1981). detailed analysis of the serum LH secretory profiles of conscious free-moving female rats during the time of pubertyEndocrinology. 109203239 available on accessed 09/12/17

Warne PA, Ehrhardt A, Schechter D, Williams J, Gorman J.(1991) Menstrual abnormalities in HIV+ and HIV− women with a history of intravenous drug use (abstract M. C. 311). VII International Conference on AIDS; Florence, Italy

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.(1995) HIV/AIDS surveillance report. . pp. 1–34

Muggiasca ML, Agarossi A, Ghetti E, Ravasi L, Federici D, Conti M. (1993) Gyneacological problems in HIV-positive women (abstract PO-B23-1941). IX International Conference on AIDS; Berlin, Germany.

Cejtin, E., Kalinowski, A., Bacchetti, P., Taylor, R., Watts, D., Kim, S., Massad, L., Preston-Martin, S., Anastos, K., Moxley, M., Minkoff, H. (2006). Effects of human immunodeficiency virus on protracted amenorrhea and ovarian dysfunction. Obstet Gynecol.;108:1423–1431

Marcondes, f. k., Miguel, k., Melo, l. l. & Spadari-bratfisch, R. C., 2001, Estrous cycle influences the response of female rats in the elevated plus-maze. Physiol. Behav., 74(4-5): 435-440


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Paper submission email:

This journal follows ISO 9001 management standard and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Copyright ©