Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


Eunice Thecla Chepkemboi, Dr. Samson Nyang’au Paul


Purpose: This study sought to identify the effect of the uptake of disruptive innovations on the performance of selected airlines in Kenya. Its specific objectives included to determine the impact of digital platforms, mobile technology, Blockchain technology and travel intermediaries on the performance of selected airline in Kenya. This study was restricted to three airlines in Kenya, namely, Kenya Airways, Jambojet and Fly540.

Methodology: It focused on 120 staff working within the Nairobi offices of these airlines based on their familiarity with strategic initiatives employed in responding to disruptive innovations. The theoretical review featured the following theories: the theory of disruptive innovations; radical innovations theory; the theory of open innovation; and diffusion of innovations theory. This study applied a descriptive research design since it was focussed on describing the characteristics of the participants involved in the study since this is a social research. It adopted a census method for determining the sample size. It used self-administered questionnaires on 120 respondents from the target population who were given two weeks to complete the questionnaires before collection using a drop and pick arrangement was adopted. The study used a five point Likert scale to develop the questionnaire to use in tandem with two measures of central tendency, standard deviation and mean, to describe the data. The data was then examined using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (version 22) to conduct regression analysis, descriptive analysis and inferential analysis. The results were then presented using graphs and tables.

Results: The results indicate that travel intermediaries had the strongest positive correlation with performance followed by mobile technology adoption, digital platforms and blockchain technology, respectively. Further, whilst organisations in the industry have established commendable strategies to ensure digital platforms reliability and mobile technology adoption, they have yet to embrace blockchain technology as a strategy for coping with disruptive innovations. The same case applies to travel intermediaries where the local airline companies have not implemented effectively thus losing market to other upcoming international airlines.

Unique contribution to theory, practice and policy: The study recommends that the management of airlines in Kenya to adopt blockchain technology in order to further strengthen their IT systems and use this as a means of resisting possible blockchain technology-driven disruptive innovations. The companies also ought to embrace appropriate technologies to support travel intermediaries through which they tap the low income earners thus sustaining their performance.

This Abstract was viewed 300 times | PDF Article downloaded 79 times


Digital Platforms, Mobile Technology, Blockchain Technology, Travel Intermediaries and Performnce of Airlines

Full Text:



Accenture (2016). Turbulence ahead: plotting a course through digital disruption. Technology Vision for Airlines 2016. Retrieved from

Albors-Garrigos, J., & Hervas-Oliver, J. L. (2013, July). Disruptive technology in mature industries: Its contribution to industry sustainability. In Technology Management in the IT-Driven Services (PICMET), 2013 Proceedings of PICMET'13:(pp. 585-596). IEEE.

Ali, R. (2016). The airline industry’s connected commerce future - disrupt or be disrupted. Skift Report. Retrieved from

Amoroso, D., & Ackaradejruangsri, P. (2016). Exploring the adoption of mobile technologies in Thailand: Development of a research model. Journal of Business Management and Research, 6(1), 19-28.

Bergek, A., Berggren, C., Magnusson, T., & Hobday, M. (2013). Technological discontinuities and the challenge for incumbent firms: Destruction, disruption or creative accumulation?. Research Policy, 42(6-7), 1210-1224.

Boone, H. N., & Boone, D. A. (2012). Analyzing likert data. Journal of extension, 50(2), 1-5.

Bouwer, L. (2016). Digital platforms – The embodiment of innovation management theory? Working paper presented to the Innovation Management Research Institute. Retrieved from

Burmistrov, I. (2009, September). Mobile air ticket booking. In European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics: Designing beyond the Product---Understanding Activity and User Experience in Ubiquitous Environments (p. 11). VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.

Christensen, C. M., Raynor, M. E., & McDonald, R. (2015). What is disruptive innovation. Harvard Business Review, 93(12), 44-53.

Coccia, M. (2016). Radical innovations as drivers of breakthroughs: characteristics and properties of the management of technology leading to superior organisational performance in the discovery process of R&D labs. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 28(4), 381-395.

Dabić, M., Bašić, M., & Vlajčić, D. (2016). Introduction to the Open Innovation Paradigm. In Innovation Education Reloaded: Nurturing Skills for The Future. LUT Scientific and Expertise Publications.

Dahiru, T. (2008). P-value, a true test of statistical significance? A cautionary note. Annals of Ibadan postgraduate medicine, 6(1), 21-26.

Dearing, J. W., & Cox, J. G. (2018). Diffusion of Innovations Theory, principles, and practice. Health Affairs, 37(2), 183-190.

Dobrin, C. O., Popescu, G. N., Popescu, V. A., & Popescu, C. R. (2012, November). The concept of performance in business organizations–case study on the employee performance in Romanian business organizations. In Proceedings of the INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT CONFERENCE 6(1), 310-316. Faculty of Management, Academy of Economic Studies, Bucharest, Romania.

Elena-Iuliana, I., & Maria, C. (2016). Organizational performance-a concept that self-seeks to find itself. Annals of'Constantin Brancusi'University of Targu-Jiu. Economy Series, (4).

Gannamaneni, A., Ondrus, J., & Lyytinen, K. (2015, January). A post-failure analysis of mobile payment platforms. In System Sciences (HICSS), 2015 48th Hawaii International Conference on (pp. 1159-1168). IEEE.

Garvey, F., & Sankaranarayanan, S. (2012). Intelligent agent based flight search and booking system. International Journal of Advanced Research in Artificial Intelligence, 1(4), 12-28.

Gemici, E., & Alpkan, L. (2015). An application of disruptive innovation theory to create a competitive strategy in Turkish air transportation industry. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 207, 797-806.

Hamilton, D. F., Ghert, M., & Simpson, A. H. R. W. (2015). Interpreting regression models in clinical outcome studies. British Editorial Society of Bone and Joint Surgery, London, United Kingdom, 4(9), 152-153.

Hill, J. B. (2017). Leading through digital disruption: Gartner insights on spotting and responding to digital disruption. Retrieved from

Hossain, M., & Lassen, A. H. (2017). How do digital platforms for ideas, technologies, and knowledge transfer act as enablers for digital transformation? Conference proceedings at the XXVIII ISPIM Innovation Conference, Vienna, Austria.

Hüseyinoğlu, I. Ö., Galipoğlu, E., & Kotzab, H. (2017). Social, local and mobile commerce practices in omni-channel retailing: insights from Germany and Turkey. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 45(7/8), 711-729.

Ishmaev, G. (2017). Blockchain technology as an institution of property. Metaphilosophy, 48(5), 666-686.

Juell-Skielse, G., & Hjalmarsson-Jordenius, A. (2017). Accelerating Open Digital Innovation in the Automotive Industry: Action Design Research in Progress. In Australasian Conference on Information Systems 2017, Hobart, Australia.

Kasmire, J., Korhonen, J. M., & Nikolic, I. (2012). How radical is a radical innovation? An outline for a computational approach. Energy Procedia, 20, 346-353.

Kothman, I., & Faber, N. (2016). How 3D printing technology changes the rules of the game: insights from the construction sector. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 27(7), 932-943.

Liang, T. P., Chen, D. N., & Pee, L. G. (2013). The Impacts of Open Innovations on Organizational Performance: A Perspective based on Information Technology and Knowledge Ecology. The Thirty Fourth International Conference on Information Systems, Milan, Italy.

Lien, A. S. Y., & Jiang, Y. D. (2017). Integration of diffusion of innovation theory into diabetes care. Journal of diabetes investigation, 8(3), 259-260.

Magni, M., Angst, C. M., & Agarwal, R. (2012). Everybody needs somebody: The influence of team network structure on information technology use. Journal of Management Information Systems, 29(3), 9-42.

Mooi, E., & Sarstedt, M. (2014). A concise guide to market research, chapter 7: “Regression analysis”. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 10, 193-233.

Mugenda, O. & Mugenda A. (2003). Research methods: quantitative and qualitative approaches.

Murfield, M., Boone, C. A., Rutner, P., & Thomas, R. (2017). Investigating logistics service quality in omni-channel retailing. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 47(4), 263-296.

Nabosu, S. S. (2013). The effect of expansion projects on the financial performance of airline companies: A case study of Kenya Airways (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi).

Naqshbandi, M. M. & Singh, S. K. G. (2015). Theories in innovation management. In Selected theories in social research. UM Press (pp. 41-51).

Nguyen, H. T., Nguyen, H., Nguyen, N. D., & Phan, A. C. (2018). Determinants of customer satisfaction and loyalty in Vietnamese life-insurance setting. Sustainability, 10(4), 1151.

NIIT (2010). Social media for airline industry. NIIT Technologies white paper. Retrieved from

Njonjo, S. K. (2014). The application of business process reengineering at Kenya Airways (Master’s degree, University of Nairobi).

Owuonda, S. O., & Orwa, D. (2016). Cloud computing governance readiness assessment: Case study of a local airline company. International Journal of Applied Information Systems (IJAIS), 10(8), 33-42.

Parker, G. G., Van Alstyne, M. W., & Choudary, S. P. (2016). Platform revolution: How networked markets are transforming the economy and how to make them work for you. WW Norton & Company.

PwC (2016). Disrupting Africa: Riding the wave of the digital revolution. Retrieved from

Rogers, S., & Singhal, A. A., & Quinlan, M. M (2008). Diffusion of innovations. In Stacks, D. W., & Salwen, M. B. (Eds.). (2014). An integrated approach to communication theory and research (pp. 418-434) Second edition. NY: Routledge.

Rose, N. (2011). The always-connected traveller: How mobile will transform the future of air travel. Travel Tech Consulting Inc, 1-39.

Sanakulov, N., & Karjaluoto, H. (2015). Consumer adoption of mobile technologies: a literature review. International Journal of Mobile Communications, 13.

Sawyer, S. F. (2009). Analysis of variance: the fundamental concepts. Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy, 17(2), 27E-38E.

Singh, A. S., & Masuku, M. B. (2014). Sampling techniques & determination of sample size in applied statistics research: An overview. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, 2(11), 1-22.

Suchánek, P., & Králová, M. (2018). Customer satisfaction and different evaluation of it by companies. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja, 31(1), 1330-1350.

Suhartanto, D., & Noor, A. A. (2012). Customer satisfaction in the airline industry: the role of service quality and price. In Asia Tourism Forum Conference (p. 6).

Tanwar, R. (2013). Porter’s generic competitive strategies. Journal of business and management, 15(1), 11-17.

Tibbs, C. Y., & Langat, L. K. (2016). Internal process, learning perspective of balance scorecard and organisational performance. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, 4(11), 458-474.

Vagdevi, P., & Guruprasad, H. S. (2015). A Study on cloud computing in aviation and aerospace. International Journal of computer science & Engineering Technology, 6(03).

Vanhaverbeke, W., & Roijakkers, N. (2013). Enriching open innovation theory and practice by strengthening the relationship with strategic thinking. In Strategy and communication for innovation (pp. 15-25). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Vercauteren, A. (2008). Recognising radical innovation: The importance of perspective and level of analysis. Retrieving from

Vertakova, Y. V., Rudakova, O. V., Shadrina, V. V., Kobersy, I. S., & Belova, I. N. (2016). Strategy of disruptive innovation in emerging regional markets: Factors of success and failure. International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, 6(8S), 274-279.

Viellechner, O., & Wolf, T. (2010). Incumbent inertia upon disruptive change in the airline industry: Causal factors for routine rigidity and top management moderators (No. 100). HHL Working Paper.

Zentner, A. (2015). Disruptive innovation: A catalyst for change in business and market modeling. Retrieved from


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Paper submission email:

This journal follows ISO 9001 management standard and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Copyright ©