CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE. A CRITICAL LITERATURE REVIEW
This article assesses the causes and effects of gender-based violence. Gender-Based violence refers to harmful acts directed at an individual based on their gender. Gender-based violence can include sexual, physical, mental and economic harm inflicted in public or in private. It also includes threats of violence, coercion and manipulation. This can take many forms such as intimate partner violence, sexual violence, child marriage, female genital mutilation and so-called ‘honour crimes. The consequences of gender-based violence are devastating and can have life-long repercussions for survivors. It can even lead to death. The methodological approach for these articles is based on qualitative research methods of previous articles. The learned helplessness theory and the social learning theory were used to expound more on the gender-based violence. Ten articles were reviewed using the content analysis method. The results revealed that lack of physical security, poverty, discriminatory social, cultural laws, norms and practices are some of the major causes of gender-based violence. Gender-based violence has effects such as homicide and suicide, injury and shock, disability and sleeping disorders, reproduction problems, emotional and psychological problems and social and economic problems such as increased gender inequalities. The study recommends the government should create facilities that help women experiencing Gender Based Violence such as counselling centers, funds that will help victims get rehabilitated. Government should invest in institutions like Police and the judiciary so that victims are assisted. The community should also establish community social structures such as community groups of both men and women provide a sensitization platform for people to share experiences related GBV and remedies so as to solicit support from fellow community members.